© Copyright 2020 The University of Northern British Columbia, Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management, Major in Outdoor Recreation and Conservation, Major in Wildland Conservation and Recreation. On the West Coast, tuna stocks are now restricted.

The Anahim Volcanic Belt was formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over the Anahim hotspot. Many of the volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. The Chilcotin Group is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. [62], The westernmost point is Boundary Peak 187 (60°18′22.929″N 141°00′7.128″W) at the southern end of the Yukon–Alaska border, which roughly follows 141°W but leans very slightly east as it goes North 60°18′04″N 141°00′36″W / 60.301°N 141.010°W / 60.301; -141.010 (Boundary Peak 187).
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) transfers responsibility and control over lands, resources and the environment to Indigenous peoples and Northerners through land claim and self-government agreements and devolution to territorial governments.

Canada has produced a Biodiversity Action Plan in response to the 1992 international accord; the plan addresses conservation of endangered species and certain habitats. [5] Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi);[6] additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi). Volcanism has also occurred in the Canadian Shield.

[18] Parts of Western Canada have a semi-arid climate, and parts of Vancouver Island can even be classified as a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. INAC works closely with Indigenous and Northern partners to develop strategies to protect human health and the environment, while facilitating economic development. Ocean waters are also becoming contaminated by agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities.[59]. Canada's position between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the U.S. was strategically important during the Cold War since the route over the North Pole and Canada was the fastest route by air between the two countries and the most direct route for intercontinental ballistic missiles. The Arctic Lowlands and Hudson Bay lowlands comprise a substantial part of the geographic region often designated as the Canadian Shield (in contrast to the sole geologic area). Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. North, near the Alaskan border, Haida Gwaii lies across Hecate Strait from the North Coast region and to its north, across Dixon Entrance from Southeast Alaska. Major in Landscape Conservation and Management. The Natural Resources & Environmental Studies Institute (NRESi) builds connections among university researchers and communities or external experts to advance understanding of natural resources and the environment. Other than in the plateau regions of the Interior and its many river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest. These hills are known for a great richness in precious minerals.

The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was formed by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath the North American Plate.

[8], Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield;[9] 42 percent of the land acreage of Canada is covered by forests (approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land), made up mostly of spruce, poplar and pine. [58] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry.

The dry, temperate climate of the Okanagan Valley in south central British Columbia provides ideal conditions for fruit growing and a flourishing wine industry; the semi-arid belt of the Southern Interior also includes the Fraser Canyon, and Thompson, Nicola, Similkameen, Shuswap and Boundary regions and fruit-growing is common in these areas also, and also in the West Kootenay. [4] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. The headwaters of the Yukon River, the largest and longest of the rivers on the Pacific Slope, lie in northern British Columbia at Atlin and Teslin Lakes. Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves.

The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. The physical geography of Canada is widely varied.

The fisheries industry has historically been one of Canada's strongest. 2020-10-24 11:18 MDT: M=3.9 125 km SW of Wrigley, NT - aftershock Link to report. While the largest part of the Canadian Arctic is composed of seemingly endless permafrost and tundra north of the tree line, it encompasses geological regions of varying types: the Arctic Cordillera (with the British Empire Range and the United States Range on Ellesmere Island) contains the northernmost mountain system in the world. It contains over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 million to 2.8 billion years old.

Despite this, 79.7 percent of Canada's population resides in urban areas, where population densities are increasing. [42] It also runs through parts of southern Quebec.[42]. Fifty-four percent of Canada's land area is covered in forest. There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2.6 billion years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.[49]. Details here. [62], The Canadian pole of inaccessibility is allegedly near Jackfish River, Alberta (59°2′N 112°49′W). Agricultural regions in Canada include the Canadian Prairies, the Lower Mainland and various regions within the Interior of British Columbia, the St. Lawrence Basin and the Canadian Maritimes. Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources in areas such as the Central Canadian Shield forests ecoregion that covers much of Northern Ontario. The furthest straight-line distance that can be travelled to Canadian points of land is between the southwest tip of Kluane National Park and Reserve (next to Mount Saint Elias) and Cripple Cove, Newfoundland (near Cape Race) at a distance of 3,005.60 nautical miles (5,566.37 km; 3,458.78 mi). [44] Prior to its colonization and heavy urban sprawl of the 20th century, this Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests area was home to large mixed forests covering a mostly flat area of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Canadian Shield. This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

The Peace, Athabasca and Liard Rivers, as well as Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (respectively the largest and second largest lakes wholly enclosed by Canada) are significant elements of the Arctic watershed. Fossil fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada, with oil and gas being extracted from deposits in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin since the mid 1900s.
Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean.

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