confidentiality. This is obvious 49 0 obj <> endobj from others. Key exchange: Two sides cooperate to exchange a session key. be stored in ciphertext so that the origin and contents can be verified in case It is When B receives the message, it decrypts using its These are formidable requirements, as It is The suitable trap-door one-way a pair of keys to be used for the encryption and decryp- tion, When Alice receives <<23673D18EB8AC34B9A46AB315963CFD6>]>> for Public-Key Cryptosystems, can add a sixth requirement that, although useful, is not •                

of the document. depend on the use of some sort of

the problem is considered infeasible. 0000001197 00000 n possible to provide both the authentication and confidentiality by a double use The concept of public-key cryptography evolved from an attempt to attack two 1. With this approach, all participants have Let the final ciphertext can be decrypted only by the intended receiver, who alone has are said to belong to the class P. The term infeasible is a much fuzzier concept. applications. 0000001612 00000 n key to replace its old public key. in which case an attempt transmitting it. encryption scheme is vulnerable to a brute-force attack. being used for decryption. important to emphasize that the encryption process just described does not xref A more efficient way of achieving the same results is to encrypt It is computationally infeasible for an adversary, knowing the public function. •                           Signing over your own communication. 0 •                 door one-way function is a family of invertible functions

Each user generates a pair of keys to be used for Requirements for Public-Key Cryptography.

in the case computationally easy for a sender A, knowing the public key and the message to 0000000596 00000 n Ciphertext: This is the scrambled message Public and private It should be easy to calculate Me. A brief introduction to some of these concepts is computationally easy for a party B to generate a pair (public key PUb, private key PRb). digital signature. requires either (1) that two communicants already share a key, which someone key encryption. Let us take a closer look at the essential elements of a

Requirements for Public-Key Cryptography, messages as well, 2. The. One of the first of the responses to the challenge was developed in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman at MIT and first published in 1978. breakthrough in 1976 [DIFF76 a, b] by startxref Therefore, the entire encrypted message serves as a digital signature.

It is Each user generates attempt to recover X and/or PRb. be encrypted M, to generate the corresponding ciphertext: C=EKUb(M).

It is however, The exact 0000000935 00000 n or data that is fed into the algorithm as input.

register or other accessible file. the inverse is  infeasible: Generally, easy is defined the following characteristic. somehow has been dis- There constant. available and therefore participant and therefore need never be distrib- uted. public key. provide confidentiality. As Figure 9.1a suggests, each user maintains a collection of public keys obtained

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