SWOT (Surface Water Ocean Topography) Mission, SWOT is a wide-swath altimeter mission concept - a proposal under study/definition in 2009 by NASA/JPL and CNES - for accurate future monitoring of local sea level changes at the land-sea interface.
Figure 14: Overall Ground System architecture, including links to spacecraft (image credit: CNES, NASA/JPL), - CNES S?band stations: Downlink for spacecraft engineering. Prolific Sea-Observing Satellite Turns 10.
The instrument detail, deployable reflectarray antenna, and the science mode of operations are illustrated in Figures 9, 10, and 6, respectively. The spatial variability of the wave and wind fields will introduce height biases.
The SWOT NASA mission will study the global oceans at unprecedented temporal and spatial scales and provide unique insight into global terrestrial surface waters, including lake level height and river discharge volume.
Key mission drivers: A number of top level mission requirements are key drivers to the mission concept design.
The SWOT science data products will include ocean, hydrology, and enhanced hydrology higher level products in addition to level 1 products.
The surface water spatial resolution of 50 m impacts the onboard data handling and data downlink requirements due to the large associated data volume (+ 7 TBit/day) and the raw data rate of KaRIn of 360 Mbit/s. Launch on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket is planned for April 2022. KaRIn includes an experimental nadir channel, either as a NNI (Near-Nadir Interferometer), or as a KNA (Ka-band Nadir Altimeter). Other features of the spacecraft bus are batteries with 320 Ah capacity to support 2 kW observatory average power requirements, a SSR (Solid State Recorder) of 2.3 Tbit capacity, and a propulsion subsystem with a propellant tank capacity to meet the French Law on orbital debris mitigation.
The KaRIn measurement concept has a rich heritage based on: 1) The many highly successful ocean observing radar altimeters (ERS-1, TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-2, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason-2, etc.). Here's a closer look at what makes it so special.
24). One of 15 missions listed in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey as missions that NASA should implement in the coming decade, SWOT will be jointly developed and managed by NASA, the French Space Agency (CNES), and the Canadian Space Agency. The requirements call for spatial resolutions of water surfaces in the range of 10-100 m at temporal resolutions of 1 week.
The SWOT spacecraft measures satellite and ocean range through its nadir altimeter, corrected for the effects of columnar water water through its microwave radiometer.
SAR altimetry is the only method capable of producing images of high resolution water surface elevation measurements [i.e., provision of h, Δh/Δx (slope), and Δh/Δt (changes in water level over time)]. Launch: A launch of the SWOT spacecraft is planned for the 2020 using a NASA medium-class launch vehicle. The POD suite of instruments will be used to correct orbit errors.
The instrument concept and core technologies for KaRIn were originally developed from NASA's ESD (Exploration Systems Development) efforts in the 2000's to develop the WSOA (Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter), a Ku-band centimeter-level precision concept for ocean observing that was developed to a substantial level of maturity, but deferred due to budgetary constraints.
The KaRIN instrument is expected to have a mass of ~294 kg, an orbital average power of ~ 810 W, and an average data rate of ~ 271 Mbit/s over land and ~ 3 Mbit/s over the ocean with onboard data processing. The nadir payload module accommodates all the science instruments aside from KaRIn [microwave radiometer, nadir altimeter, DORIS,GPSP(GPS Payload receiver), and LRA], and the X-band communication subsystem for the high rate downlink of the science data, including KaRIn's. The dual-frequency nadir altimeter is based on an evolution of the Jason Poseidon-3 instrument and/or a design based on the SIRAL (SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter) flown on the CryoSat-2 mission of ESA (European Space Agency). An airborne version of SWOT, called AirSWOT, has been developed at NASA/JPL to provide calibration and validation for the mission when on orbit as well as to support science and technology during mission development. The mission objective was to obtain single-pass interferometric SAR imagery in C-band and X-band for DEM generation.  It will give scientists their first comprehensive view of Earth's freshwater bodies from space and much more detailed measurements of the ocean surface than ever before.
It is an international partnership involving the French space agency, CNES, and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The KaRIn instrument covers near-nadir swaths (0.6-4.1º incidence angle) on both sides of the satellite track.
In addition, its antenna/boom must be very stable and disturbances from spacecraft mechanisms must be minimized. SWOT will provide global information as input for systems monitoring transboundary river basins, including measurements of variations in reservoir water storage and estimates of river discharge. Coastal ocean dynamics are important for many societal applications.
The 35 m2 area twin solar arrays are oversized to minimize disturbances from array articulation.
The CNES-supplied Jason-heritage nadir altimeter specifically addresses SSH for long spatial wavelengths. The range difference between the two antennas is determined by the relative phase difference between the two signals (Figure 5).
The instrument concept uses two SAR antennas at opposite ends of a 10 m boom coupled to a nadir SAR to measure the highly reflective water surface. KaRIn operates in the so- called “Non Ping Pong mode”: nominally, the radar transmits out of one antenna and receives on both, thus creating an interferometric pair of each swath (Figure 6) The isolation between the two swaths is accomplished by means of offset feed reflectarray antennas which produce beams of orthogonal polarizations for each swath. A NASA study analyzes how river-observing satellites can better help mitigate their effects. JPL and CNES have reached an initial agreement to jointly develop and operate the science data system using common data processing flow and interfaces, but each institution will develop their own unique data production and distribution system.  Because SWOT operates at relatively short wavelengths (compared to the Ku band Jason series) and at near-nadir incidence angles (<5°), it is designed to be uniquely appropriate for measuring water surface elevations and inundation extents. The primary instrument on SWOT is the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn), which uses radar interferometry and synthetic aperture (SAR) technology. JPL and CNES will provide engineering monitoring and commands for operating their respective instruments. Designed to make the first-ever global survey of Earth's surface water, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography, or SWOT, satellite will collect detailed measurements of how water bodies on Earth change over time. SWOT is designed for the study and monitoring of inland waters and the oceans, such as: The sharing of river water often causes friction between neighboring states, especially when there is no common technology for verification. The spacecraft bus provides basic services to the payload modules and includes C&DH (Command and Data Handling) subsystem, the EPS (Electrical Power Subsystem), ADCS (Attitude Determination and Control) subsystem, TCS (Thermal Control Subsystem), and the RF communication subsystem. The growing concern about our planet's fresh water resources, coupled with the economically driven decrease in groundbased gauge measurements, has focused attention on the possibility of using space-based data sets for remote measurements of river and lake heights. 7826, Sept. 20-23, 2010, paper: 7826-35, 'Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XIV,' edited by Roland Meynart, Steven P. Neeck, Haruhisa Shimoda, doi: 10.1117/12.868439, 30) Ernesto Rodriguez, Daniel Esteban-Fernandez, “The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT): The Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) for water level measurements at all scales,” Proceedings of the SPIE Remote Sensing Conference, Toulouse, France, Vol. Once the science data is downlinked to the ground, it is delivered to the SDS (Science Data System) at JPL and CNES. In the world's oceans, SWOT will observe ocean circulation at unprecedented scales of 15-25 km, approximately an order of magnitude finer than current satellites. 2) The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) - the 11-day mission took place in the period Feb. 11-22, 2000. The integrated measurement approach is illustrated in Figure 8 (Ref.
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